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The Jerusalem Post. January 14, The Daily Telegraph. Sky News. The Telegraph. Cornell Law Review. In Richard Delgado; Jean Stefancic eds.
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Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 3 December Mother Jones. Retrieved 4 December Merriam Webster. Parerga and Paralipomena. The Passing of the Great Race 4 ed.
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Cambridge University Press. For instance, Ben Klassen, founder of the atheistic Church of the Creator and author of The White Man's Bible , discusses Christianity extensively in his writings and denounces it as a religion that has brought untold horror into the world and has divided the white race.
Chas Smash, of Madness". Archived from the original on February 19, Trojan Skinhead Reggae Box Set liner notes. London: Trojan Records.
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Retrieved 18 November Baltimore: JHU Press. New York: Twayne Publishers. Statistics provided by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute.
American Nineteenth Century History. White nationalism. America First with Nicholas J. As tension heightened in spring, , Stalin desperately tried not to give Hitler any provocation that Berlin could use as an excuse for a German attack; Stalin refused to allow the military to go on the alert — even as German troops gathered on the borders and German reconnaissance planes overflew installations.
This refusal to take necessary action was instrumental in the destruction of major portions of the Red Air Force, lined up on its airfields, in the first days of the German-Soviet war.
At the crisis of the war, in the autumn of , Stalin made many concessions to the army: the government restored unitary command by removing the Commissars from the chain of command.
Beginning in autumn , units that had proved themselves by superior performance in combat were given the traditional "Guards" title.
These concessions were combined with ruthless discipline: Order No. Infractions by military and politruks were punished with transferral to penal battalions and to penal companies which carried out especially hazardous duties, such as serving as tramplers to clear Nazi minefields.
As it became clear that the Soviet Union would win the war, Stalin ensured that propaganda always mentioned his leadership of the war; he sidelined the victorious generals and never allowed them to develop into political rivals.
After the war the Soviets once again purged the Red Army though not as brutally as in the s and demoted many successful officers including Zhukov , Malinovsky and Koniev to unimportant positions.
The enormous territorial gains of presented Germany with vast areas to pacify and administer. For the majority of people of the Soviet Union, the Nazi invasion was viewed as a brutal act of unprovoked aggression.
While it is important to note that not all parts of Soviet society viewed the German advance in this way, the majority of the Soviet population viewed German forces as occupiers.
In areas such as Estonia , Latvia , and Lithuania which had been annexed by the Soviet Union in the Wehrmacht was tolerated by a relatively more significant part of the native population.
This was particularly true for the territories of Western Ukraine, recently rejoined to the Soviet Union, where the anti-Polish and anti-Soviet Ukrainian nationalist underground hoped in vain to establish the "independent state", relying on German armed force.
However, Soviet society as a whole was hostile to the invading Nazis from the very start. The nascent national liberation movements among Ukrainians and Cossacks , and others were viewed by Hitler with suspicion; some, especially those from the Baltic States, were co-opted into the Axis armies and others brutally suppressed.
None of the conquered territories gained any measure of self-rule. Instead, the Nazi ideologues saw the future of the East as one of settlement by German colonists, with the natives killed, expelled, or reduced to slave labour.
The cruel and brutally inhumane treatment of Soviet civilians, women, children and elderly, the daily bombings of civilian cities and towns, Nazi pillaging of Soviet villages and hamlets and unprecedented harsh punishment and treatment of civilians in general were some of the primary reasons for Soviet resistance to Nazi Germany's invasion.
Indeed, the Soviets viewed Germany's invasion as an act of aggression and an attempt to conquer and enslave the local population.
Regions closer to the front were managed by military powers of the region, in other areas such as the Baltic states annexed by the USSR in , Reichscommissariats were established.
As a rule, the maximum in loot was extracted. His opening speech was clear about German policy: "I am known as a brutal dog Our job is to suck from Ukraine all the goods we can get hold of I am expecting from you the utmost severity towards the native population.
Atrocities against the Jewish population in the conquered areas began almost immediately, with the dispatch of Einsatzgruppen task groups to round up Jews and shoot them.
The massacres of Jews and other ethnic minorities were only a part of the deaths from the Nazi occupation. Many hundreds of thousands of Soviet civilians were executed, and millions more died from starvation as the Germans requisitioned food for their armies and fodder for their draft horses.
As they retreated from Ukraine and Belarus in —44, the German occupiers systematically applied a scorched earth policy, burning towns and cities, destroying infrastructure, and leaving civilians to starve or die of exposure.
The Nazi ideology and the maltreatment of the local population and Soviet POWs encouraged partisans fighting behind the front; it motivated even anti-communists or non-Russian nationalists to ally with the Soviets and greatly delayed the formation of German-allied divisions consisting of Soviet POWs see Ostlegionen.
These results and missed opportunities contributed to the defeat of the Wehrmacht. Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totalling Military losses of Civilian deaths totalled Additional famine deaths, which totalled one million during —47, are not included here.
These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR including territories annexed in — Belarus lost a quarter of its pre-war population, including practically all its intellectual elite.
Following bloody encirclement battles, all of the present-day Belarus territory was occupied by the Germans by the end of August The Nazis imposed a brutal regime, deporting some , young people for slave labour, and killing hundreds of thousands civilians more.
Some recent reports raise the number of Belarusians who perished in the war to "3 million thousand people, unlike the former 2.
Sixty percent of Soviet POWs died during the war. By , 80 per cent of civilians and 20 per cent of POWs were freed, others were re-drafted, or sent to labour battalions.
Two per cent of civilians and 14 per cent of the POWs were sent to the Gulag. The official Polish government report of war losses prepared in reported 6,, victims out of a population of 27,, ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses.
Although the Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention , it is generally accepted that it considered itself bound by the provisions of the Hague convention.
This 'note' was left unanswered by Third Reich officials. Soviet repressions also contributed into the Eastern Front's death toll. Mass repression occurred in the occupied portions of Poland as well as in the Baltic states and Bessarabia.
Immediately after the start of the German invasion, the NKVD massacred large numbers of inmates in most of their prisons in Western Belarus and Western Ukraine, while the remainder was to be evacuated in death marches.
The Soviet victory owed a great deal to the ability of its war industry to outperform the German economy, despite the enormous loss of population and land.
Stalin's five-year plans of the s had resulted in the industrialisation of the Urals and central Asia. In , thousands of trains evacuated critical factories and workers from Belarus and Ukraine to safe areas far from the front lines.
Once these facilities were reassembled east of the Urals, production could be resumed without fear of German bombing. As the Soviet Union's manpower reserves ran low from onwards, the great Soviet offensives had to depend more on equipment and less on the expenditure of lives.
The Germans, on the other hand, could rely on a large slave workforce from the conquered countries and Soviet POWs. American exports and technical expertise also enabled the Soviets to produce goods that they wouldn't have been able to on their own.
German production of explosives from to was 1. Consumption on all fronts during the same period was 1. Soviet armoured fighting vehicle production was greater than the Germans in , the Soviet Union manufactured 24, tanks and self-propelled guns to Germany's 19, The Soviets incrementally upgraded existing designs, and simplified and refined manufacturing processes to increase production, and were helped by a mass infusion of harder to produce goods such as aviation fuel, machine tools, trucks, and high-explosives from Lend-Lease, allowing them to concentrate on a few key industries.
Meanwhile, Germany had been cut off from foreign trade for years by the time it invaded the USSR, was in the middle of two extended and costly theatres at air and sea that further limited production Battle of the Atlantic and Defence of the Reich , and was forced to devote a large segment of its expenditures to goods the Soviets could cut back on such as trucks or which would never even be used against the Soviets such as ships.
This included , trucks, 12, armoured vehicles including 7, tanks , 11, aircraft and 1. Five thousand tanks were provided by the British and Canada.
Total British supplies were about four million tons. After the defeat at Stalingrad, Germany geared completely towards a war economy, as expounded in a speech given by Joseph Goebbels , the Nazi propaganda minister , in the Berlin Sportpalast , increasing production in subsequent years under Albert Speer 's the Reich armaments minister direction, despite the intensifying Allied bombing campaign.
The fighting involved millions of Axis and Soviet troops along the broadest land front in military history.
Rüdiger Overmans states that it seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of these men were killed in action and the other half died in Soviet custody.
Over According to the Narkomat of Defence order No. The huge death toll was attributed to several factors, including brutal mistreatment of POWs and captured partisans, the large deficiency of food and medical supplies in Soviet territories, and atrocities committed mostly by the Germans against the civilian population.
The multiple battles and the use of scorched earth tactics destroyed agricultural land , infrastructure, and whole towns, leaving much of the population homeless and without food.
According to a report prepared by the General Staff of the Army issued in December , materiel losses in the East from the period of 22 June until November stood at 33, armoured vehicles of all types tanks, assault guns, tank destroyers, self-propelled guns and others.
Paul Winter, Defeating Hitler , states "these figures are undoubtedly too low". The Soviets lost 96, tanks, tank destroyers, self-propelled guns and assault guns, as well as 37, other armoured vehicles such as armoured cars and semi-tracked trucks for a total of , armoured vehicles lost.
The Soviets also lost , aircraft combat and non-combat causes , including 46, in combat. Polish Armed Forces in the East , initially consisting of Poles from Eastern Poland or otherwise in the Soviet Union in —, began fighting alongside the Red Army in , and grew steadily as more Polish territory was liberated from the Nazis in — When the Axis countries of Central Europe were occupied by the Soviets, they changed sides and declared war on Germany see Allied Commissions.
Most of those who joined were Soviet POWs. These foreign volunteers in the Wermacht were primarily used in the Eastern Front but some were assigned to guard the beaches of Normandy.
Hitler's notorious Commissar Order called for Soviet political commissars, who were responsible for ensuring that Red Army units remained politically reliable, to be summarily shot when identified amongst captured troops.
Axis troops who captured Red Army soldiers frequently shot them in the field or shipped them to concentration camps to be used as forced labourers or killed.
It is estimated that between 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Soviet Offensive For a discussion of the term itself, see Great Patriotic War term.
Soviet occupation of Central and Eastern Europe. Finland until Soviet Union Czechoslovakia Poland. Air and naval support :.
Eastern Front. Soviet leadership. Related topics. Main article: Germany—Soviet Union relations, — See also: Aufbau Ost and Lossberg study. Main article: Operation Barbarossa.
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Main article: Soviet invasion of Manchuria. Main article: Adolf Hitler. Main article: Joseph Stalin. From there Hungary became a German puppet state until the end of the war.
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We finally put the colonial and commercial policy of the pre-war and go over to the territorial policy of the future. But if we speak today in Europe of new land, we can primarily only to Russia and the border states subjects him think.
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